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Am Westufer des Perlflusses befinden sich auf einer künstlichen Insel Grenzübergangsanlagen für die Einreise in die Sonderverwaltungszone Macau und das chinesische Festland.

Hier beginnt auch die Hauptbrücke. Die 22,9 Kilometer lange eigentliche Hauptbrücke hat ihre Endpunkte auf zwei im Rahmen des Projektes neu angelegten künstlichen Inseln.

Die westlich gelegene künstliche Insel liegt vor Macau und gehört zum Unterdistrikt Gongbei von Zhuhai. Die östliche künstliche Insel wurde mitten im Perlfluss angelegt.

Hier geht die Hauptbrücke in einen 6,7 Kilometer langen Untersee-Tunnel über, der auf einer dritten, weiter östlich gelegenen künstlichen Insel wieder zutage tritt.

Der Tunnel wurde aus m langen Teilstücken zusammengesetzt. Der Hauptschiffahrtskanal befindet sich im Bereich des Unterseetunnels.

Östlich des Tunnels beginnt der Abschnitt, der in Regie Hongkongs erbaut wurde. Von dort ist das Stadtzentrum ca. Im Frühjahr findet der Innenausbau der Tunnelröhren statt mit Wandverkleidungen und Asphaltierung.

Während das Bauwerk in den Staatsmedien der Volksrepublik China als technisches Meisterwerk gepriesen wurde, war in Hongkong vielfach Kritik zu hören.

Die Baukosten der Brücke werden sich auch nach den optimistischsten Annahmen innerhalb der nächsten Jahrzehnte keinesfalls amortisieren.

The Peak Tram , Hong Kong's first public transport system, has provided funicular rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since Hong Kong generates most of its electricity locally.

With few natural lakes and rivers, high population density, inaccessible groundwater sources, and extremely seasonal rainfall, the territory does not have a reliable source of freshwater.

The Dongjiang River in Guangdong supplies 70 per cent of the city's water, [] and the remaining demand is filled by harvesting rainwater.

Broadband Internet access is widely available, with Connections over fibre-optic infrastructure are increasingly prevalent, [] contributing to the high regional average connection speed of Hong Kong is characterised as a hybrid of East and West.

Traditional Chinese values emphasising family and education blend with Western ideals, including economic liberty and the rule of law.

The territory diverged from the mainland due to its long period of colonial administration and a different pace of economic, social, and cultural development.

Mainstream culture is derived from immigrants originating from various parts of China. This was influenced by British-style education, a separate political system, and the territory's rapid development during the late 20th century.

The remaining population purport mixed identities, 23 per cent as "Hongkonger in China" and 12 per cent as "Chinese in Hong Kong". Traditional Chinese family values, including family honour , filial piety , and a preference for sons , are prevalent.

The degree of its adherence to feng shui is believed to determine the success of a business. Food in Hong Kong is primarily based on Cantonese cuisine , despite the territory's exposure to foreign influences and its residents' varied origins.

Rice is the staple food, and is usually served plain with other dishes. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets , and ingredients are used as quickly as possible.

Dishes include congee , cha siu bao , siu yuk , egg tarts , and mango pudding. Local versions of Western food are served at cha chaan teng fast, casual restaurants.

Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea. Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped rebuild the colony's entertainment industry over the next decade.

During the s, films such as A Better Tomorrow , As Tears Go By , and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond martial arts films ; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular.

The city's martial arts film roots are evident in the roles of the most prolific Hong Kong actors. At the height of the local movie industry in the early s, over films were produced each year; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China.

The number of films produced annually has declined to about 60 in Cantopop is a genre of Cantonese popular music which emerged in Hong Kong during the s.

Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu , it is also influenced by Cantonese opera and Western pop. Western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong, and remains a large part of local musical education.

The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra , composed of classical Chinese instruments , is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community.

Despite its small area, the territory is home to a variety of sports and recreational facilities. The city has hosted a number of major sporting events, including the East Asian Games , the Summer Olympics equestrian events , and the Premier League Asia Trophy.

Hong Kong represents itself separately from mainland China, with its own sports teams in international competitions.

Lee Lai-shan won the territory's first and only Olympic gold medal at the Atlanta Olympics. No longer part of the Commonwealth of Nations , the city's last appearance in the latter was in Dragon boat races originated as a religious ceremony conducted during the annual Tuen Ng Festival.

The race was revived as a modern sport as part of the Tourism Board 's efforts to promote Hong Kong's image abroad.

The first modern competition was organised in , and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in The Hong Kong Jockey Club , the territory's largest taxpayer, [] has a monopoly on gambling and provides over seven per cent of government revenue.

Education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom , particularly the English system.

Much of the elderly population were not formally educated due to war and poverty. Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit.

These schools are subject to the curriculum guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau. Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing curricula and teach using other languages.

The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; most schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction , with written education in both Chinese and English.

Secondary schools emphasise "bi-literacy and tri-lingualism", which has encouraged the proliferation of spoken Mandarin language education.

Hong Kong has eleven universities. The University of Hong Kong was founded as the city's first institute of higher education during the early colonial period in Local publications are often politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies.

The central government has a print-media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hong Kong disambiguation and HK disambiguation.

Special administrative region of China. Special administrative region in People's Republic of China. Special administrative region.

Chinese [a] English [b]. Regional language. Official scripts. Tai Mo Shan. South China Sea. Main article: Judiciary of Hong Kong.

Main article: Architecture of Hong Kong. See also: List of tallest buildings in Hong Kong. Main article: Transport in Hong Kong. Main article: Culture of Hong Kong.

See also: Lingnan culture. Main article: Hong Kong cuisine. Main article: Cinema of Hong Kong. Main article: Music of Hong Kong.

Leslie Cheung left is considered a pioneering Cantopop artist, and Andy Lau has been an icon of Hong Kong music and film for several decades as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings.

Main article: Sport in Hong Kong. Main article: Education in Hong Kong. Main article: Media of Hong Kong. Hong Kong portal China portal Asia portal.

Residents predominantly speak Cantonese , the de facto regional standard. A person without Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided there for a continuous period not less than seven years, and is permanently domiciled in the territory would be legally recognised as a Hongkonger.

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Archived from the original on 30 November Consultado el 6 de febrero de Agencia Central de Inteligencia de Estados Unidos.

Consultado el 18 de abril de Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin. Book of Han en chino Hong Kong Aviation Club. Archivado desde el original el 29 de diciembre de Consultado el 28 de diciembre de World Federation of Exchanges.

Noviembre de Consultado el 27 de octubre de Consultado el 15 de diciembre de Foster and Partners. Archivado desde el original el 16 de diciembre de Consejo de Familia.

Archivado desde el original el 27 de octubre de Consultado el 19 de febrero de Consultado el 17 de diciembre de Herbario de Hong Kong.

Archivado desde el original el 1 de diciembre de The Hong Kong Government Gazette no. Enlace irrecuperable. Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels.

The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. Consultado el 29 de diciembre de Oficina de Antigüeades y Monumentos. Consultado el 3 de noviembre de Archivado desde el original el 7 de febrero de Consultado el 14 de enero de Departamento de Servicios de Entretenimiento y Culturales.

Archivado desde el original el 28 de abril de Consultado el 27 de noviembre de Universidad de Nottingham.

Consultado el 31 de diciembre de Consultado el 21 de diciembre de Universidad de Hong Kong. Consultado el 2 de enero de South China Morning Post.

Consultado el 10 de junio de Marzo de Consultado el 19 de abril de Departamento de Justicia. Judicatura de Hong Kong.

Archivado desde el original el 26 de enero de Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor. Archivado desde el original el 10 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 17 de febrero de Fondo Monetario Internacional.

Jumpstart Business Centre. Diciembre de Consultado el 23 de febrero de Consultado el 31 de octubre de Freedom House.

Enlace irreecuperable. Consejo Legislativo. Yahoo News en chino. Archivado desde el original el 27 de febrero de Archivado desde el original el 26 de mayo de Departamento de Estado de Estados Unidos.

Consultado el 11 de febrero de Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados. Iniciativa Humanitaria de Harvard.

Consultado el el 19 de febrero de Cruz Roja de Hong Kong. Crossroads Foundation. Box of Hope. Chi Heng Foundation. Archivado desde el original el 29 de julio de Consultado el 20 de febrero de Consultado el 14 de febrero de Consultado el 29 de marzo de Observatorio de Hong Kong.

Archivado desde el original el 9 de octubre de Archivado desde el original el 29 de marzo de Consultado el 24 de diciembre de Hong Kong Bird Watching Society.

Consultado el 26 de diciembre de Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Archivado desde el original el 27 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 25 de diciembre de Consultado el 11 de marzo de Corlett, Richard 1 de junio de Universidad China de Hong Kong.

Universidad Abierta de Hong Kong. Oficina de Medio Ambiente. Environmental Resources Management. Heritage Foundation. Autoridad Monetaria de Hong Kong.

Bank for International Settlements. Abril de Consultado el 26 de octubre de Consultado el 27 de febrero de Banco Mundial.

Hong Kong Exchange Group.

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Der Tunnel wurde aus m langen Teilstücken zusammengesetzt. Der Hauptschiffahrtskanal befindet sich im Bereich des Unterseetunnels.

Östlich des Tunnels beginnt der Abschnitt, der in Regie Hongkongs erbaut wurde. Von dort ist das Stadtzentrum ca. Im Frühjahr findet der Innenausbau der Tunnelröhren statt mit Wandverkleidungen und Asphaltierung.

Während das Bauwerk in den Staatsmedien der Volksrepublik China als technisches Meisterwerk gepriesen wurde, war in Hongkong vielfach Kritik zu hören.

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Consultado el 10 de febrero de Departamento naval. Archivado desde el original el 1 de septiembre de Aeropuerto Internacional de Hong Kong.

Cathay Pacific. Archivado desde el original el 12 de enero de Hong Kong Airlines. Archivado desde el original el 12 de junio de HK Express.

Startup Living China. Strategic Decisions Group. BBC News. Consultado el 19 de diciembre de World Population Review. Baptist Mid-Missions. Gallup International.

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Autoridad de Hospitales. Archivado desde el original el 14 de julio de Consultado el 27 de diciembre de Lonely Planet.

Healthcare Awards. Archivado desde el original el 24 de octubre de Academia de Medicina de Hong Kong. Universidad Bautista de Hong Kong. Hong Kong Traveller.

Consultado el 29 de noviembre de Consultado el 30 de noviembre de Consultado el 4 de diciembre de Hong Kong Dance Company.

Consultado el 6 de diciembre de Los Angeles: University of California Press. Southern District Tourism. Archivado desde el original el 21 de febrero de Universidad de Harvard.

Universidad del Sur de California. Consultado el 7 de diciembre de Consultado el 8 de diciembre de Museo de Ciencia de Hong Kong.

Archivado desde el original el 9 de diciembre de The AI Summit. Academia Mundial de Ciencias. World Scientific. Consultado el 13 de diciembre de Hong Kong Chefs Association.

National Geographic. Archivado desde el original el 8 de febrero de Hong Kong Business. Hong Kong Games.

Hong Kong Sports Institute Limited. Major Sports Events Commitee. En Poon, Lai Fong, ed. Barber, Nicola Gareth Stevens.

Bishop, Kevin Odyssey Publications. Bruce, Philipp Oxford University Press. Buckley, Roger Cambridge University Press.

Carroll, John Cathy, Hsu C. H Hong Kong University Press. Chu, Cindy Yik-yi Palgrave Macmillan. Chu, Yiu-Wai Cohen, Warren I.

Curry, Janel; Hanstedt, Paul City University of HK Press. Davis, Sir John Francis The route proposed by Wu was promoted by the Zhuhai government under the name Lingdingyang Bridge.

In the mids, Zhuhai built a bridge between the mainland and Qi'ao Island that was intended as the first phase of this route, though the full scheme had not been approved by either the Chinese or Hong Kong governments at the time.

In December , the Legislative Council of Hong Kong passed a motion urging the Administration to develop the logistics industry including the construction of a bridge connecting Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao.

Officials from three sides solved issues such as landing points and alignments of the bridge, operation of the Border Crossing Facilities, and project financing.

In March , it was further reported that China's Central Government, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 22 percent of the total costs.

The remaining 78 percent consisted of loans approximately Construction of the Hong Kong section of the project began in December after a delay caused by a legal challenge regarding the environmental impact of the bridge.

Construction of the Main Bridge, consisting of a viaduct and an undersea tunnel, was completed on 6 July , [11] and the entire construction project was completed on 6 February Hong Kong section under construction in off the coast of Lantau Island.

This section includes a This section includes a 9. The HZMBus shuttle bus service runs 24 hours a day with bus departures as frequent as every five minutes.

Since the Hong Kong government imposes significant fees, taxes and administrative paperwork on private vehicle ownership and usage to deal with road congestion, [52] driving a car on the HZMB would incur the same restrictions as current cross-border traffic.

In addition, to help compact Macau tackle its road congestion problems, drivers arriving from other regions are strongly encouraged to use a park and ride scheme, leaving their vehicles at a car park on the edge of Macau.

A small quota of vehicles are allowed to enter Macau directly. With the bridge in place, travelling time between Zhuhai and Hong Kong would cut down from about four hours to 30 minutes on the road.

The HZMB project is part of a Beijing -driven strategy to create an economic hub and promote the economic development of the whole area of the Pearl River Delta , which is also known as Greater Bay Area.

The artificial island housing the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities HKBCF was reported drifting due to an unconventional method, hitherto unused in Hong Kong, for land reclamation using a row of circular steel cells pile-driven into the mud and filled with inert material to form a seawall.

The drifting of parts of the reclaimed island allegedly caused a delay in the HZMB project. The Highways Department denied various reports of movement up to 20 metres but admitted that parts of the reclaimed land had moved "up to six or seven metres", [62] [63] [64] claiming that some movement was expected and safety had not been jeopardised.

Mainland contractors also reportedly had difficulty constructing immersed tubes for their section of the project, with the director of the Guangdong National Development and Reform Commission stating that would be a difficult target to meet.

By , the Main Bridge of the HZMB project had experienced a cost overrun of about 10 billion yuan, blamed on increased labour and material costs, as well as changes to the design and construction schemes.

The number of deaths and injuries during the construction project came under scrutiny in Hong Kong. In addition to 9 fatalities on the mainland side, [67] more than ten deaths were reported on the Hong Kong side of the construction project, plus between and injuries, depending on the source.

Lawmaker Fernando Cheung also expressed concern over the unknown death toll on the Chinese side of the project, stating: "the project is known as the 'bridge of blood and tears' and we are only talking about the Hong Kong side.

We don't even know what is happening in China. I suppose the situation could be 10 times worse than that in Hong Kong. In , Hong Kong's Independent Commission Against Corruption ICAC arrested 21 employees two senior executives, 14 laboratory technicians and five laboratory assistants of Jacobs China Limited, a contractor of the Civil Engineering and Development Department for falsifying concrete test results, thus potentially risking the safety of the bridge for public use.

Hong Kong's Highways Department conducted tests again after the falsified results were exposed and found all test results met safety standards.

In April , the public and media raised questions over the integrity of the seawalls protecting the artificial islands at both ends of the undersea tunnel.

In footage taken by drone users and mariners, the dolosse installed at the edges of the artificial islands appear to have dislodged. Some civil engineers suggested that there was an error in design.

Subsequent aerial footage posted online showed a section of the dolosse breakwater completely underwater. Civil engineer So Yiu-kwan told Hong Kong media on 12 April that the water level, at the time the photos were taken, was about 1.

He said the dolosse would offer no wave protection if entirely submerged, and further alleged that they had been installed backwards.

The dolphins found near waters of Lantau were worst hit with numbers dropping by 60 percent between April and March Feng Shui specialists suggest that the two-man-made islands of the HZMB look like two snake heads facing each other from above.

Critics say they have been constructed this way to negatively influence the Feng Shui of Hong Kong. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Fixed link consisting of tunnel and multiple bridges. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Chinese.

January Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.

Archived from the original on 3 March Archived from the original on 22 October Ecsg 2020 Hong Win S Macau. His proposed bridge would have ended at the Chinese village of Tangjia, and a Beste Spielothek in Bodenheim finden road would have continued south through Zhuhai before terminating at Macau. Dieciocho distritos.

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